According to a Department of Justice study, 5. Instead, registration is a mandatory collateral consequence of criminal conviction. It will be managed by the New Zealand Police and information will be shared between the Police, Child, Youth and Family , the Department of Corrections , the Ministry of Social Development , and the Department of Building and Housing —government agencies which deal with child safety. This Sex Offenders Registry is only accessible to the Police Service and other branches of government. The results of the study were that sex offender recidivism was, in fact, slightly lower in states where sex offenders were not required to register. Civil right groups,   law reform activists,    academics,   some child safety advocates,       politicians  and law enforcement officials  think that current laws often target the wrong people, swaying attention away from high-risk sex offenders, while severely impacting lives of all registrants,     and their families,   attempting to re-integrate to society.
In addition, registrants are often subject to restrictions that bar loitering, working or living within exclusion zones that sometimes cover entire cities and have forced registrants into encampments, such as the Julia Tuttle Causeway sex offender colony. In practice, most states with Civil Commitment centers rarely release anyone. This is contrary to media depictions of stranger assaults or child molesters who kidnap children unknown to them. A study found no evidence that New York's registry or notification laws reduced sexual offenses by rapists, child molesters, sexual recidivists, or first-time sex offenders. Despite the public perception of sex offenders as having high recidivism, sex offenders had the second lowest recidivism rate, after only murderers, but sex offenders were about four times more likely than non-sex offenders to be arrested for another sex crime after their discharge from prison. Offense classified as Tier I offense in one state with no public disclosure, might be classified as Tier II or Tier III offense in another, leading to considerably longer registration period and public disclosure. Texas has not released anyone in the 15 years since the program was started. At least one state Illinois reclassifies all registrants moving in the state into the highest possible tier Sexual Predator , regardless of the original tier of the person, leading to a lifetime registration requirement and being publicly labelled as a "Sexual Predator". In some states, they may also be barred from voting after a sentence has been completed and, at the federal level, barred from owning firearms, like all felons. Residency restrictions may even cause a sex offender's family to be homeless. It records the details of anyone convicted of a sexual offence against a child or a mentally disabled person. All 50 states and District of Columbia maintain registries that are open to public via sex offender registration websites, although some registered sex offenders are visible to law enforcement only. Some states have Civic Confinement laws, which allow very-high-risk sex offenders to be placed in secure facilities, "in many ways like prisons", where they are supposed to be offered treatment and regularly reevaluated for possible release. However, since sex crimes are the most under-reported crimes,  whether or not the Department of Justice's 5. Information pertaining to names, addresses, physical description and vehicles are made public via official websites. A majority of states apply systems based on conviction offenses only, where sex offender registration is mandatory if person pleads or is found guilty of violating any of the listed offenses. In the United States offenders are often classified in three categories: Application to offenses other than felony sexual offenses[ edit ] Sex offender registration has been applied to crimes other than rape, child molestation, and child pornography offenses and is sometimes applied to certain non-sexual offenses. Ohio has a publicly accessible registry for people convicted five or more times of drunken driving. In other states, offenders are categorized according to the tier level related to statute of conviction. Public disclosure of sex offender information[ edit ] Currently, only the United States allows, and more often than not requires public disclosure of offender information, regardless of individual risk. Some states exclude low tier offenders from public registries while in others, all offenders are publicly listed. A bill to create a publicly accessible registry for domestic violence offenders passed the Texas House of Representatives in , but was not voted on in the Texas Senate. The sex offenders' register is expected to be operational by once enabling legislation is passed and changes are made to the Corrections Act to enable information sharing. S states do not utilize risk assessment tools when determining ones inclusion on the registry, although studies have shown that actuarial risk assessment instruments, which are created by putting together risk factors found by research to correlate with re-offending, consistently outperform the offense based systems. Other countries do not make sex offender information public, unless the risk assessment has been conducted and the offender has been determined to pose a high risk of re-offending. Recidivism rates only measure how many people return to prison or are arrested for a new offense and do not measure how many people actually commit a new criminal offense some criminals commit new offenses after release from prison but do not get caught.
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